QB Issue Resolution:

Enter the charge in your credit card account, much like entering a check in your checking account.

It reads like you have not set up a credit card account, but instead are paying it like a bill. Your case/problem statement shows one important issue that results from paying your card in this way, among many others.  Instead, set up and use a credit card account the way you do a bank account and then when you make a charge on your card it will be posted on that date just like a check.

Resolution for Issue 'I charged a charitable donation in December and will not pay bill until January. How do I get the charge to show in the current years contributions?' available: Yes (Solved).
Source: Intuit Community forum.

I charged a charitable donation in December and will not pay bill until January. How do I get the charge to show in the current years contributions?: this issue or error code is a known issue in Quickbooks Online (QBO) and/or Quickbooks. Support for this issue is available either by self-service or paid support options. Experts are available to resolve your Quickbooks issue to ensure minimal downtime and continue running your business. First try to resolve the issue yourself by looking for a resolution described below. If it is a complex issue or you are unable to solve the issue, you may contact us by clicking here or by using other support options.

Support for contributions
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Error Recovery for contributions [Canada]
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