QB Issue Resolution:

Click the “Clock” icon (top middle, next to plus sign).

That clock sign is for viewing recent 10 transactions (click more on bottom right to see more than 10)

Locate entered payment and delete.

You will see delete button by clicking “More” (bottom middle)

Resolution for Issue 'Made a mistake on a payment received and I want to cancel it and start again' available: Yes (Solved).
Source: Intuit Community forum.

Made a mistake on a payment received and I want to cancel it and start again: this issue or error code is a known issue in Quickbooks Online (QBO) and/or Quickbooks. Support for this issue is available either by self-service or paid support options. Experts are available to resolve your Quickbooks issue to ensure minimal downtime and continue running your business. First try to resolve the issue yourself by looking for a resolution described below. If it is a complex issue or you are unable to solve the issue, you may contact us by clicking here or by using other support options.

Support for Payment
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Error Recovery for Payment [Canada]
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Additional Support Options: