This is a QB bug that happens when you scale up your display fonts.  Set them back to 100% and then the columns will appear again.

For Windows 7, and perhaps others as well, right click your desktop and choose Personalize. Then click Make Text and other items larger or smaller […]

Resolution for 'class column issue: 'How do I resize the transaction window when I can’t see the job number or class column?' available: Yes.

The class column issue or error code is a known issue in Quickbooks Online (QBO) and/or Quickbooks. Support for this issue is available either by self-service or paid support options. Experts are available to resolve your Quickbooks issue to ensure minimal downtime and continue running your business. First try to resolve the class column issue yourself by looking for a resolution described in the article. If it is a complex class column issue or you are unable to solve the issue, you may contact us by clicking here or by using other class column support options.

For more information about resolving issues related to class column in Quickbooks/QBO or to get support for the issue 'How do I resize the transaction window when I can’t see the job number or class column?', click the link below: